最新「引文桂冠獎」名單出爐,預測 2016 年諾貝爾獎得主

黑洞所產生重力波的探測和癌症免疫治療研究躋身桂冠獎研究成果


美國賓州費城, 2016 年 9 月 21 日 – 全球領先的專業情報提供商湯森路透旗下的智權與科學事業部(按:現為 Clarivate Analytics 科睿維安)今天發佈了2016 年引文桂冠獎(Citation Laureates)名單,預測在今年或不久的將來可能獲得諾貝爾獎的科研精英。

自 2002 年以來,湯森路透每年發佈的引文桂冠獎已成功預測了39位諾貝爾獎得主。該獎項透過對Web of Science™資料庫平台(全球最重要的學術研究與發現平台,涵蓋自然科學、社會科學和人文藝術三大領域)中科研論文及其引文進行深入分析,遴選出今年或未來幾年在化學、物理學、生理學或醫學、以及經濟學領域可能獲得諾貝爾獎的全球最具影響力的研究人員。

在今年的獲獎名單中,各領域值得關注的科學家有:物理學家Ronald W.P. Drever、Kip S. Thorne及Rainer Weiss,他們設立了雷射干涉重力波天文台(LIGO),使檢測黑洞所產生之重力波成為可能。在生理學或醫學領域,James P. Allison、Jeffrey A. Bluestone及Craig B. Thompson 解釋了CD28和CTLA-4如何成為T細胞活性的調節因子,而Gordon J. Freeman、Tasuku Honjo 及 Arlene H. Sharpe闡明計劃性細胞死亡蛋白-1(PD-1)的功能,這兩個科研小組的發現促進了癌症免疫治療的發展。在經濟學領域,Olivier J. BlaNchard 被公認為對總體經濟學作出了極具價值的貢獻,其中包括經濟波動與雇傭的決定因素。

繼2014年和2015年之後,今年的引文桂冠獎名單中連續第三年出現華人科學家 – 來自麻省理工學院的華裔科學家張鋒教授、以及來自香港中文大學的盧煜明教授均入選今年引文桂冠獎化學領域的獲獎名單。張鋒因其在老鼠和人類細胞中應用CRISPR-cas9基因編輯技術獲此殊榮;盧煜明則因其在孕婦血漿血中檢測到胎兒游離DNA,從而取得了無創產前檢測的革命性成果而入榜。截至目前,共有8位華裔科學家曾摘得湯森路透引文桂冠獎,首位獲此殊榮的華裔科學家錢永健(Roger Tsien)在當年即獲得了諾貝爾化學獎。

「高被引論文是世界一流研究的最可靠指標之一,使我們能夠瞭解哪些研究最有可能獲得諾貝爾獎。」湯森路透智權與科學事業部 政府及學術全球業務總監Jessica Turner表示:「我們為2016年引文桂冠獎的獲獎者及其開創性的研究成果喝彩,並祝福他們在本屆以及未來諾貝爾獎評選中取得佳績。」

湯森路透連續第二年邀請全球的科學愛好者參加「大眾票選預測諾貝爾獎」活動,在引文桂冠獎獲獎者中,為自己預測的諾貝爾獎得主投票。對此活動感興趣的人士可前往StateOfInnovation.com 進行投票。欲瞭解引文桂冠獎的研究方法、以及歷屆全球「引文桂冠獎」得主及其研究領域的詳細介紹,請訪問 StateOfInnovation.com

2016湯森路透引文桂冠獎:

生理學或醫學

James P. Allison
Professor and Chair, Department of Immunology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas
Houston, TX USA

Jeffrey A. Bluestone
A.W. and Mary Margaret Clausen Distinguished Professor of Metabolism and Endocrinology, University of California San Francisco Medical School
San Francisco, CA USA

Craig B. Thompson
President and CEO, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
New York, NY USA

入選理由:解釋 CD28 和 CTLA-4 如何成為 T 細胞活性的調節因子,調節免疫反應

Gordon J. Freeman
Professor, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA USA

Tasuku Honjo
Visiting Professor, Kyoto University
Kyoto, JAPAN

Arlene H. Sharpe
George Fabyan Professor of Comparative Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and Member, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA USA

入選理由:闡明計劃性細胞死亡蛋白-1 (programmed cell death-1, PD-1) 及其路徑,促進了癌症免疫治療的發展

Michael N. Hall
Professor Biozentrum, University of Basel
Basel, SWITZERLAND

David M. Sabatini
Whitehead Institute, Member; Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Member, Koch Institute for Integrative Research; Senior Associate Member, Broad Institute.
Cambridge, MA USA

Stuart L. Schreiber
Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Director of Chemical Biology, Broad Institute
Cambridge, MA USA

入選理由:發現雷帕黴素靶蛋白 (TOR) 及雷帕黴素機能靶蛋白 (mTOR) 的生長調節因子

物理學

Marvin L. Cohen
University Professor, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley; Senior Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Berkeley, CA USA

For theoretical studies of solid materials, prediction of their properties, and especially for the empirical pseudopotential method

入選理由:固體材料的理論研究及其屬性預測,尤其是經驗贗勢方法

Ronald W.P. Drever
Professor of Physics Emeritus, California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA USA

Kip S. Thorne
Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus, California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA USA

Rainer Weiss
Professor of Physics Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA USA

入選理由:設立雷射干涉重力波天文台(LIGO) 並使檢測黑洞所產生之重力波成為可能

Celso Grebogi
Sixth Century Chair in Nonlinear and Complex Systems, School of Natural and Computing Sciences, University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen, SCOTLAND

Edward Ott
Distinguished University Professor, Yuen Sang and Yuen Kit So Professor, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland
College Park, MD USA

James A. Yorke
Distinguished University Research Professor of Mathematics and Physics, Institute for Physical Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland
College Park, MD USA

入選理由:描述了混沌系統的一種控制理論(OGY 方法)

化學

George M. Church
Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA USA

Feng Zhang 張鋒
W. M. Keck Career Development Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Core Member, Broad Institute
Cambridge, MA USA

入選理由:在老鼠和人類細胞中應用 CRISPR-cas9 基因編輯技術

Dennis Lo Yuk-Ming 盧煜明
Li Ka Shing Professor of Medicine and of Chemical Pathology, and Director of the Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong, CHINA

入選理由:在孕婦血漿血中檢測到胎兒游離 DNA,是無創產前檢測的革命性成果

Hiroshi Maeda
Professor, Institute of Drug Delivery Science, Sojo University, and Professor Emeritus, Kumamoto University School of Medicine
Kumamoto, JAPAN

Yasuhiro Matsumura
Director, Division of Developmental Therapeutics, Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center Japan
Tokyo, JAPAN

入選理由:發現大分子藥物的高通透性和滯留效應,是癌症治療學的重要發現

經濟學

Olivier J. Blanchard
C. Fred Bergsten Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C. USA and Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics Emeritus, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA USA

入選理由:對總體經濟學作出貢獻,其中包括經濟波動與雇傭的決定因素

Edward P. Lazear
Morris Arnold and Nona Jean Cox Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, and Jack Steele Parker Professor of Human Resources, Management and Economics, Stanford Graduate School of Business
Stanford, CA USA

入選理由:對人事管理經濟學獨特領域的發展

Marc J. Melitz
David A. Wells Professor of Political Economy, Department of Economics, Harvard University
Cambridge, MA USA

入選理由:對於企業異質性及國際貿易的開創性的描述